In my book, Fire up Your Fiction, I give lots of tips with before-and-after examples on topics like avoiding style blunders, picking up the pace, fixing awkward phrasing, dodging info dumps, showing character reactions, and streamlining your writing.
Another easy way to amp up your fiction-writing style is to simply look at the length, variety, and structure of your sentences.
In general, it’s best to vary your sentence types and lengths, not only to avoid monotony and amateurish writing, but also to enhance the impact, mood and effect you’re striving for in any given scene.
A few quick tips for adding oomph to your sentences and paragraphs:
~ VARY THE LENGTH AND STRUCTURE OF YOUR SENTENCES.
Within a paragraph, it’s usually best to combine short, long, and medium-length sentences of different forms.
In general, avoid too many short, choppy sentences. Several short subject-verb-object sentences in a row can often seem amateurish, like grade-school writing.
At the other extreme, break up long, convoluted sentences that force the reader to go back and reread the whole thing to get the meaning, like: “Inasmuch as I’d hoped for a reconciliation, circumstances dictated that other factors and other family members played a decisive role in the ongoing…” blah, blah.
As Gary Provost says in 100 Ways to Improve Your Writing:
"Vary Sentence Length.
"This sentence has five words. Five-word sentences are fine. But several together become monotonous. Listen to what is happening. The writing is getting boring. The sound of it drones. It's like a stuck record. The ear demands some variety. Now listen: I vary the sentence length, and I create music. Music. The writing sings. It has a pleasant rhythm, a lilt, a harmony. I use short sentences. I also use sentences of medium length. And sometimes when I am certain the reader is well rested, I will engage him with a sentence of considerable length, a sentence that burns with energy and builds with all the impetus of a crescendo, the roll of the drums, the crash of the cymbals--sounds that say listen to this, it is important.
"So write with a combination of short, medium, and long sentences. Create a sound that pleases the reader's ear. Don't just write words. Write music. . ."
For tense scenes, it’s usually more effective to use short, terse sentences, rather than long, meandering ones.
(Some of the "before" examples below are exaggerated to get the point across quickly.)
Don’t start several sentences in a row with “He” or “She,” or even alternating with a name, or “The man” or “The woman,” etc.:
The girl was wearing a short leather skirt and a tight tank top. She had long shapely legs that seemed to go on forever. She turned to him and brushed a few strands of blond hair away from her eyes. She flashed a smile, but didn’t walk toward him. She went the other way.
The girl was wearing a short leather skirt and a tight tank top. Her long shapely legs seemed to go on forever. She turned to him and flashed a smile, brushing a few strands of blond hair away from her eyes. But instead of walking toward him, she went the other way.
Don’t start sentence after sentence with a gerund (ing verb):
Creeping to the office door, Eileen stood listening. Hearing nothing, she opened it and peeked out. Seeing no one in the hallway, she headed for the door near the entrance to the showroom. Entering the room, she turned on the light and closed the door behind her. Expecting to see a room filled with stolen artwork, Eileen was disappointed.
(Above example is exaggerated for effect.)
And for fiction, feel free to ignore that old rule about not starting a sentence with “And,” “But,” or “So.”
Rearrange the ideas for a more sophisticated feel:
His headlights found the driveway leading to the rear of the duplex. He parked in the darkness. He closed the car door carefully after him. He drew his gun. He was relieved to see no lights in the windows. He walked quietly up the path to the back door.
His headlights found the driveway leading to the rear of the duplex. He drove around, then parked in the darkness. Closing the car door carefully after him, he drew his gun and crept forward. As he walked quietly up the path to the back deck, he was relieved to see no lights in the windows.
Change up “and” sentences, which can seem clunky and amateurish.
He was tall and thin with a long narrow face and looked exhausted.
Tall and thin with a long narrow face, he looked exhausted.
The bag lady wore a ragged overcoat and she trudged along, pushing a shopping cart full of junk.
The bag lady, who wore a ragged overcoat, trudged along, pushing a shopping cart full of junk.
Her ragged overcoat hanging on her thin frame, the bag lady trudged along, pushing a shopping cart overloaded with junk.
Combine sentences and reword for better flow:
Ben Cross was a top-notch investigator. He was at a table drinking coffee and eating a donut when Shelley walked in.
Ben Cross, a top-notch investigator, was at a table drinking coffee and eating a donut when Shelly walked in.
Or: Shelly walked in the café and looked around. Ben Cross, a successful, well-connected security contractor, was at a table drinking coffee and eating a donut.
Watch out for run-on sentences or comma splices, like “Her son was an athlete he played all sports.” Or “He doesn’t play football anymore, he injured his back." Fix these by inserting a period, dash, or semicolon, or a conjunction like and, or, nor, but, for, so, as, yet, since, because, etc. "Her son was an athlete--he played all sports." (or period or semicolon) "He doesn't play football anymore because he injured his back." (or "since")
To add emphasis, isolate the significant word, phrase or sentence on its own line:
For a critical idea you want readers to ponder, move the pivotal sentence down to a new line, with a space below it. This pause for significance alerts the reader to the full impact of the sentence.
How the Experts do it:
Here’s an intriguing chapter ending by Harlan Coben in his bestselling thriller, Play Dead:
Partial sentences can also be excellent for emphasis, especially at the end of a scene or chapter, as in this chapter ending from Robert Crais’ The Sentry:
Jodie Renner is a freelance fiction editor and the award-winning author of three craft-of-writing guides in her series An Editor’s Guide to Writing Compelling Fiction: WRITING A KILLER THRILLER, FIRE UP YOUR FICTION, and CAPTIVATE YOUR READERS, as well as two clickable time-saving e-resources, QUICK CLICKS: Spelling List and QUICKCLICKS: Word Usage. She has also organized two anthologies for charity: VOICES FROM THE VALLEYS – Stories and Poems about Life in BC’s Interior, and CHILDHOOD REGAINED – Stories of Hope for Asian Child Workers. You can find Jodie on her Amazon Author Page, at www.JodieRenner.com, and on Facebook.
A lot of good information. Thank you for taking the time to post it.ReplyDelete
You're welcome, Summer! Glad you find it useful. And thanks for taking the time to leave a comment!ReplyDelete
Great advice, and exactly what I was looking for. I really appreciate the examples, they make it much easier for me to recognize my own writing style and what I need to change. Thank you so much for your generosity.ReplyDelete
Hi Jodie! This article was so helpful to me. I hope you don't mind, but I featured it on my blog: http://rainydaysandlattes.com/2016/03/02/editing-your-books-sentence-structure/ReplyDelete
Very helpful. Thank you for posting.ReplyDelete
I'm so glad to know my writing is more like the 'after' examples! Thanks for helping me realize I'm on the right track. Cheers!ReplyDelete
Useful and interesting.ReplyDelete
I could do with getting the 3 books. The article left a thirst for more. Thanks Jodie.ReplyDelete
Very helpful! -tyra,20y/o,MalaysiaReplyDelete
Wow, great post.ReplyDelete
Fantastic article. I love seeing the basics of sentence structure in one article.ReplyDelete
I love the break down and the examples. Very helpful articleReplyDelete